(*1950) studied art history and psychology. In 1970 he came across the work of Herbert Read, and since he developed a special interest in the role of art in education. After finishing his studies he specialized with Rudolf Arnheim in the psychology of art. In 1991 he joined Cito, the Dutch institute for educational measurement in Arnhem, the Netherlands, where he became involved in art education in general and in assessment in art education in particular. From 1999 till 2002 he was President of the International Society for Education through Art (InSEA). From 2007 till 2010 he was professor in arts education at ArtEZ Institute for the arts, in Zwolle. He is currently senior consultant at Cito International. He has a special interest in the potential of developmental self-assessment in visual art education and has published and presented extensively on issues in art education.